COVID-19 studies:  C19 studies: C19:  IvermectinIVM Vitamin DV.D PXPX FLVFLV PVP-IPI BUBU BHBH BLBL CICI HC QHC Q NZNZ COCO More..
 
100% of the 29 early treatment studies report a positive effect (13 statistically significant in isolation).
Random effects meta-analysis with pooled effects using the most serious outcome reported shows 65% improvement for early treatment (RR 0.35 [0.25-0.50]). Results are similar after exclusion based sensitivity analysis: 66% (RR 0.34 [0.26-0.45]). Restricting to the 6 RCTs shows 49% improvement (RR 0.51 [0.32-0.82]). Restricting to the 11 mortality results shows 72% lower mortality (RR 0.28 [0.18-0.43]).
Late treatment is less successful, with only 71% of the 165 studies reporting a positive effect. Very late stage treatment is not effective and may be harmful, especially when using excessive dosages.
The probability that an ineffective treatment generated results as positive as the 242 studies to date is estimated to be 1 in 3 quadrillion (p = 0.00000000000000029).
92% of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) for early, PrEP, or PEP treatment report positive effects, the probability of this happening for an ineffective treatment is 0.0017.
There is substantial evidence of bias towards publishing negative results. 87% of prospective studies report positive effects, and only 73% of retrospective studies do. Studies from North America are 3.5 times more likely to report negative results than studies from the rest of the world combined, p = 0.0000000048.
Negative meta analyses of HCQ generally choose a subset of trials, focusing on late treatment, especially trials with very late treatment and excessive dosages.
While many treatments have some level of efficacy, they do not replace vaccines and other measures to avoid infection. Only 5% of HCQ studies show zero events in the treatment arm. Multiple approaches are required to protect everyone from all existing and future variants.
All data to reproduce this paper and the sources are in the appendix. See [Ladapo, Prodromos, Risch, Risch (B)] for other meta analyses showing efficacy when HCQ is used early.
Total242 studies3,895 authors367,509 patients
Positive effects183 studies2,818 authors254,494 patients
Early treatment 65% improvement RR 0.35 [0.25-0.50]
Late treatment 22% improvement RR 0.78 [0.72-0.84]
    
  
A
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Gautret0.34[0.17-0.68]2.4gviral+6/2014/16RRCIDose (4d)TreatmentControlHuang (RCT)0.08[0.01-1.32]4.0g (c)no recov.0/106/12Esper0.36[0.15-0.87]2.0ghosp.8/41212/224Ashraf0.32[0.10-1.10]1.6gdeath10/772/5Huang (ES)0.41[0.26-0.66]2.0g (c)viral time32/3237/37Guérin0.39[0.02-9.06]2.4gdeath0/201/34Chen (RCT)0.28[0.10-0.82]1.6gviral time18/1812/12Lagier0.41[0.27-0.62]2.4gdeath35/3,11958/618Derwand0.21[0.03-1.47]1.6gdeath1/14113/377Mitjà (RCT)0.84[0.35-2.03]2.0ghosp.8/13611/157Skipper (RCT)0.48[0.17-1.39]3.2ghosp.5/20110/194Hong0.35[0.13-0.72]n/aviral+42/4248/48Bernabeu-Wittel0.41[0.36-0.95]2.0gdeath18983Yu (ES)0.15[0.02-1.05]1.6gdeath1/73238/2,604Ly0.44[0.26-0.75]2.4gdeath18/11629/110Ip0.45[0.11-1.85]n/adeath2/9744/970Heras0.04[0.02-0.09]n/adeath8/7016/30Kirenga0.74[0.37-1.48]n/arecov. time29/2927/27Sulaiman0.36[0.17-0.80]2.0gdeath7/1,81754/3,724Guisado-Vasco (ES)0.33[0.05-1.55]n/adeath2/65139/542Fonseca0.36[0.20-0.67]2.0ghosp.25/17589/542Cadegiani0.19[0.01-3.88]1.6gdeath0/1592/137Simova0.06[0.00-1.13]2.4ghosp.0/332/5Omrani (RCT)0.88[0.26-2.94]2.4ghosp.7/3044/152Agusti0.32[0.06-1.67]2.0gprogression2/874/55Su0.15[0.04-0.57]1.6gprogression261355Amaravadi (DB RCT)0.40[0.13-1.28]3.2gno recov.3/156/12Roy0.98[0.45-2.20]n/arecov. time1415Mokhtari0.30[0.20-0.45]2.0gdeath27/7,295287/21,464Early treatment0.35[0.25-0.50]296/15,0271,165/32,56165% improvementAll 29 hydroxychloroquine COVID-19 early treatment studieshcqmeta.com 5/12/21Tau​2 = 0.57; I​2 = 87.8%; Z = 5.93 (p < 0.0001)Lower RiskIncreased Risk
    
  
B
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+All studiesEarly treatmentmin, Q1, median, Q3, maxLower RiskIncreased Riskhcqmeta.com 5/12/21
    
  
C
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Gautretviral+, p=0.001Huangno recov., p=0.02Esperhosp., p=0.02Ashrafdeath, p=0.15Huangviral- time, p<0.0001Guérindeath, p=1.00Chenviral- time, p=0.01Lagierdeath, p=0.05Derwanddeath, p=0.12Mitjàhosp., p=0.64Skipperhosp., p=0.19Hongviral+, p=0.001Bernabeu-Witteldeath, p=0.03Yudeath, p=0.02Lydeath, p=0.02Ipdeath, p=0.43Herasdeath, p=0.004Kirengarecov. time, p=0.20Sulaimandeath, p=0.01Guisado-Vascodeath, p=0.19Fonsecahosp., p=0.0008Cadegianideath, p=0.21Simovahosp., p=0.01Omranihosp., p=1.00Agustiprogression, p=0.21Suprogression, p=0.006Amaravadino recov., p=0.13Royrecov. time, p=0.96Mokhtarideath, p<0.0001Early treatment% Lower Risk% Increased Riskhcqmeta.com 5/12/21Probability results fromineffective treatmentJun 22 p<0.011 in 100Jul 16 p<0.0011 in 1 thousandAug 3 p<0.00011 in 10 thousandSep 2 p<0.000011 in 100 thousandOct 15 p<0.0000011 in 1 millionNov 20 p<0.00000011 in 10 million
    
  
D
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Xia, viral+, p=0.17Chen, progression, p=0.57Gautret, viral+, p=0.001Zhong, viral+, p<0.0001Chen, pneumonia, p=0.04Huang, no recov., p=0.02Barbosa, death, p=0.58Tang, viral+, p=0.51Esper, hosp., p=0.02Magagnoli, death, p=0.74Izoulet, death, p<0.001Ashraf, death, p=0.15Auld, death, p=1.00Sánchez..., death, p=0.005Mallat, viral- time, p=0.02Huh, cases, p=0.09Mitchell, death, p<0.0001Gendelman, cases, p=0.88Membrillo..., death, p=0.002Geleris, int./death, p=0.76Konig, hosp., p=0.88Alberici, death, p=0.12Rosenberg, death, p=0.31Shabrawishi, viral+, p=0.66Cassione, cases, p=0.59Mahévas, death, p=0.75Yu, death, p=0.002Macias, hosp., p=1.00Kim, hosp. time, p=0.01Singh, death, p=0.72Hraiech, death, p=0.21Ip, death, p=0.93Goldman, death, p=0.46Huang, viral- time, p<0.0001Gianfrancesco, hosp., p=0.82Chatterjee, cases, p<0.001Kuderer, death, p<0.0001Guérin, death, p=1.00Boulware, cases, p=0.35RECOVERY, death, p=0.15Bhattacharya, cases, p=0.001Wang, death, p=0.63Huang, hosp., p<0.001Luo, death, p=0.99Paccoud, death, p=0.88Sbidian, death, p=0.74Faíco-Filho, viral rate, p=0.40Chen, viral- time, p=0.01Fontana, death, p=0.53Bousquet, death, p=0.15Lagier, death, p=0.05Gendebien, cases, p=0.93Ferreira, cases, p<0.0001Sosa-García, death, p=1.00Komissarov, viral load, p=0.45Mikami, death, p<0.0001Martinez-Lopez, death, p=0.20Arshad, death, p=0.009Zhong, cases, p=0.04Derwand, death, p=0.12An, viral+, p=0.92Rivera-Izquierdo, death, p=0.75Chen, viral+, p=0.70Chen, viral+, p=0.71Cravedi, death, p=0.17Lecronier, death, p=0.24Trullàs, death, p=0.12Gupta, death, p=0.41Mitjà, hosp., p=0.64Skipper, hosp., p=0.19Hong, viral+, p=0.001Lyngbakken, death, p=1.00McGrail, death, p=0.69Desbois, cases, p=1.00Bernaola, death, p<0.0001Kelly, death, p=0.03Rivera, death, p=0.90Cavalcanti, death, p=0.77Khurana, cases, p=0.02Mitjà, death, p=0.27D'Arminio..., death, p=0.12Bernabeu-Wittel, death, p=0.03Davido, int./hosp., p=0.04Yu, progression, p=0.05Berenguer, death, p<0.0001Kamran, progression, p=1.00Kalligeros, death, p=0.57Singer, cases, p=0.62Salvarani, cases, p=0.75Saleemi, viral- time, p<0.05Roomi, death, p=0.54Abd-Elsalam, death, p=1.00Peters, death, p=0.57Pinato, death, p<0.0001Dubernet, ICU, p=0.008Gonzalez, death, p=0.06Ly, death, p=0.02Pasquini, death, p=0.34Catteau, death, p<0.0001Di Castelnuovo, death, p<0.0001Ip, death, p=0.43Ferri, cases, p=0.01Fried, death, p<0.001Albani, death, p=0.05de la Iglesia, hosp., p=1.00Heras, death, p=0.004Synolaki, death, p=0.27Laplana, cases, p=0.24Rentsch, death, p=0.83Kirenga, recov. time, p=0.20Alamdari, death, p=0.03Heberto, death, p=0.04Sulaiman, death, p=0.01Lauriola, death, p<0.001Ashinyo, hosp. time, p=0.03Grau-Pujol, cases, p=0.47Rajasingham, hosp., p=1.00Gentry, death, p=0.10Serrano, death, p=0.14Ulrich, death, p=1.00Shoaibi, death, p<0.001Lammers, death/ICU, p=0.02Abella, cases, p=1.00Ayerbe, death, p<0.001Polat, cases, p=0.03Almazrou, ventilation, p=0.16Nachega, death, p=0.17Ader, death, p=1.00Soto-Becerra, death, p<0.0001Aparisi, death, p=0.008Annie, death, p=0.83SOLIDARITY, death, p=0.23Guisado-Vasco, death, p=0.36Solh, death, p=0.17Ñamendys-Silva, death, p=0.18Dubee, death, p=0.21Lano, death, p=0.28Coll, death, p<0.0001Goenka, IgG+, p=0.03Frontera, death, p=0.01Choi, viral- time, p<0.0001Arleo, death, p=0.67Tehrani, death, p=0.63Fonseca, hosp., p=0.0008López, progression, p=0.02Behera, cases, p=0.29Cadegiani, death, p=0.21Salazar, death, p=0.28Rodriguez-Nava, death, p=0.77Maldonado, death, p=0.17Dhibar, cases, p=0.03Mathai, cases, p<0.0001Núñez-Gil, death, p=0.005Self, death, p=0.84Rodriguez, death, p=0.23Águila-Gordo, death, p=0.10Simova, cases, p=0.01Simova, hosp., p=0.01Sheshah, death, p<0.001Boari, death, p<0.001Budhiraja, death, p<0.0001Falcone, death, p=0.20Omrani, hosp., p=1.00Revollo, cases, p=0.52Qin, death, p=0.61van Halem, death, p=0.05Rodriguez-Gonzalez, death, p=0.26Lambermont, death, p=0.46Abdulrahman, death, p=1.00Capsoni, ventilation, p=0.30Peng, progression, p=0.63Modrák, death, p=0.04Ozturk, death, p=0.14Barnabas, hosp., p=1.00Guglielmetti, death, p=0.22Agusti, progression, p=0.21Johnston, hosp., p=0.73Alqassieh, hosp. time, p=0.11Jung, death, p=1.00Bielza, death, p=0.09Tan, hosp. time, p=0.04Naseem, death, p=0.34Orioli, death, p=1.00Gönenli, progression, p=0.77Signes-Costa, death, p=0.0005Matangila, death, p=0.21Huh, progression, p=0.11Cangiano, death, p=0.03Taccone, death, p=0.0004Su, progression, p=0.006Chari, death, p=0.17Cordtz, hosp., p=0.67Güner, ICU, p=0.16Vernaz, death, p=0.71Texeira, death, p=0.10Psevdos, death, p=0.52Sands, death, p=0.01Lotfy, death, p=0.76Sarfaraz, death, p=0.07Yegerov, death, p=1.00Rangel, death, p=0.77Li, viral- time, p=0.06Li, no disch., p=0.08Trefond, death, p=0.80Roig, death, p=0.76Ubaldo, death, p=0.64Ouedraogo, death, p=0.38Hernandez-Cardenas, death, p=0.66Fitzgerald, cases, p=0.52Purwati, viral+, p<0.0001Lora-Tamayo, death, p<0.0001Awad, death, p=0.60Lamback, death, p=0.83Bae, cases, p=0.17Gonzalez, death, p=0.27Amaravadi, no recov., p=0.13Pham, death, p=0.77Salvador, death, p=0.007Martin-Vicente, death, p=0.41Vivanco-Hidalgo, hosp., p=0.10Roy, recov. time, p=0.96Stewart, death, p=0.95Stewart, death, p=0.0003Stewart, death, p=0.65Stewart, death, p=0.09Stewart, death, p=0.26Stewart, ventilation, p=0.09Stewart, death, p=0.27Barry, death, p=0.60Dev, cases, p=0.003Alghamdi, death, p=0.88Mokhtari, death, p<0.0001Seet, severe case, p=0.14Alegiani, death, p=0.64Alzahrani, death, p=1.00Reis, death, p=1.00Mohandas, death, p=0.007Réa-Neto, death, p=0.20Kokturk, death, p=0.97Aghajani, death, p=0.09Bosaeed, death, p=0.91De Rosa, death, p=0.003All studies% Lower Risk% Increased Riskhcqmeta.com 5/12/21Probability results fromineffective treatmentMay 19 p<0.011 in 100Jun 30 p<0.00011 in 10 thousandAug 18 p<0.000011 in 100 thousandSep 9 p<0.0000011 in 1 millionSep 21 p<0.00000011 in 10 millionOct 211 in 1 billionNov 201 in 1 trillionApr 291 in 1 quadrillion
Figure 1. A. Random effects meta-analysis of all early treatment studies. Simplified dosages are shown for comparison, these are the total dose in the first four days of treatment. Chloroquine is indicated with (c). For full details see the appendix. B. Scatter plot of the effects reported in early treatment studies and in all studies. Early treatment is more effective. C and D. Chronological history of all reported effects, with the probability that the observed frequency of positive effects occurred due to random chance from an ineffective treatment.
Introduction
We analyze all significant studies concerning the use of HCQ (or CQ) for COVID-19. Search methods, inclusion criteria, effect extraction criteria (more serious outcomes have priority), all individual study data, PRISMA answers, and statistical methods are detailed in Appendix 1. We present random-effects meta-analysis results for all studies, for studies within each treatment stage, for mortality results only, after exclusion of studies with critical bias, and for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) only. Typical meta analyses involve subjective selection criteria and bias evaluation, requiring an understanding of the criteria and the accuracy of the evaluations. However, the volume of studies presents an opportunity for an additional simple and transparent analysis aimed at detecting efficacy.
If treatment was not effective, the observed effects would be randomly distributed (or more likely to be negative if treatment is harmful). We can compute the probability that the observed percentage of positive results (or higher) could occur due to chance with an ineffective treatment (the probability of >= k heads in n coin tosses, or the one-sided sign test / binomial test). Analysis of publication bias is important and adjustments may be needed if there is a bias toward publishing positive results. For HCQ, we find evidence of a bias toward publishing negative results.
Figure 2 shows stages of possible treatment for COVID-19. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) refers to regularly taking medication before being infected, in order to prevent or minimize infection. In Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP), medication is taken after exposure but before symptoms appear. Early Treatment refers to treatment immediately or soon after symptoms appear, while Late Treatment refers to more delayed treatment.
    
  
Figure 2. Treatment stages.
Results
Figure 3, Figure 4, and Table 1 show results by treatment stage, and Figure 5 shows a forest plot for a random effects meta-analysis of all studies. Figure 6 shows a forest plot restricted to mortality results only.
Early treatment.
100% of early treatment studies report a positive effect, with an estimated reduction of 65% in the effect measured (death, hospitalization, etc.) from the random effects meta-analysis, RR 0.35 [0.25-0.50].
Late treatment.
Late treatment studies are mixed, with 71% showing positive effects, and an estimated reduction of 22% in the random effects meta-analysis. Negative studies mostly fall into the following categories: they show evidence of significant unadjusted confounding, including confounding by indication; usage is extremely late; or they use an excessively high dosage.
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis.
77% of PrEP studies show positive effects, with an estimated reduction of 29% in the random effects meta-analysis. Negative studies are all studies of systemic autoimmune disease patients which either do not adjust for the different baseline risk of these patients at all, or do not adjust for the highly variable risk within these patients.
Post-Exposure Prophylaxis.
86% of PEP studies report positive effects, with an estimated reduction of 34% in the random effects meta-analysis.
Treatment timeNumber of studies reporting positive results Total number of studiesPercentage of studies reporting positive results Probability of an equal or greater percentage of positive results from an ineffective treatmentRandom effects meta-analysis results
Early treatment 29 29 100% 0.0000000019 p = 1.9e-09
1 in 537 million
65% improvement
RR 0.35 [0.25‑0.50]
p < 0.0001
Late treatment 118 166 71.1% 0.000000027 p = 2.7e-08
1 in 36 million
22% improvement
RR 0.78 [0.72‑0.84]
p < 0.0001
Pre‑Exposure Prophylaxis 33 43 76.7% 0.0003 p = 0.0003
1 in 3 thousand
29% improvement
RR 0.71 [0.58‑0.87]
p = 0.00078
Post‑Exposure Prophylaxis 6 7 85.7% 0.062 p = 0.062
1 in 16
34% improvement
RR 0.66 [0.53‑0.83]
p = 0.00043
All studies 183 242 75.6% 0.00000000000000029 p = 2.9e-16
1 in 3 quadrillion
27% improvement
RR 0.73 [0.69‑0.77]
p < 0.0001
Table 1. Results by treatment stage. 3 studies report results for a subset with early treatment, these are not included in the overall results.
    
  
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+All studiesPost-Exposure ProphylaxisPre-Exposure ProphylaxisLate treatmentEarly treatmentmin, Q1, median, Q3, maxLower RiskIncreased Riskhcqmeta.com 5/12/21
Figure 3. Results by treatment stage.
    
  
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Gautretviral+, p=0.001Huangno recov., p=0.02Esperhosp., p=0.02Ashrafdeath, p=0.15Huangviral- time, p<0.0001Guérindeath, p=1.00Chenviral- time, p=0.01Lagierdeath, p=0.05Derwanddeath, p=0.12Mitjàhosp., p=0.64Skipperhosp., p=0.19Hongviral+, p=0.001Bernabeu-Witteldeath, p=0.03Yudeath, p=0.02Lydeath, p=0.02Ipdeath, p=0.43Herasdeath, p=0.004Kirengarecov. time, p=0.20Sulaimandeath, p=0.01Guisado-Vascodeath, p=0.19Fonsecahosp., p=0.0008Cadegianideath, p=0.21Simovahosp., p=0.01Omranihosp., p=1.00Agustiprogression, p=0.21Suprogression, p=0.006Amaravadino recov., p=0.13Royrecov. time, p=0.96Mokhtarideath, p<0.0001Early treatment% Lower Risk% Increased Riskhcqmeta.com 5/12/21Probability results fromineffective treatmentJun 22 p<0.011 in 100Jul 16 p<0.0011 in 1 thousandAug 3 p<0.00011 in 10 thousandSep 2 p<0.000011 in 100 thousandOct 15 p<0.0000011 in 1 millionNov 20 p<0.00000011 in 10 million
    
  
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Xia, viral+, p=0.17Chen, progression, p=0.57Zhong, viral+, p<0.0001Chen, pneumonia, p=0.04Barbosa, death, p=0.58Tang, viral+, p=0.51Magagnoli, death, p=0.74Izoulet, death, p<0.001Auld, death, p=1.00Sánchez..., death, p=0.005Mallat, viral- time, p=0.02Membrillo..., death, p=0.002Geleris, int./death, p=0.76Alberici, death, p=0.12Rosenberg, death, p=0.31Shabrawishi, viral+, p=0.66Mahévas, death, p=0.75Yu, death, p=0.002Kim, hosp. time, p=0.01Singh, death, p=0.72Hraiech, death, p=0.21Ip, death, p=0.93Goldman, death, p=0.46Huang, viral- time, p<0.0001Kuderer, death, p<0.0001RECOVERY, death, p=0.15Wang, death, p=0.63Luo, death, p=0.99Paccoud, death, p=0.88Sbidian, death, p=0.74Faíco-Filho, viral rate, p=0.40Fontana, death, p=0.53Bousquet, death, p=0.15Sosa-García, death, p=1.00Komissarov, viral load, p=0.45Mikami, death, p<0.0001Martinez-Lopez, death, p=0.20Arshad, death, p=0.009An, viral+, p=0.92Rivera-Izquierdo, death, p=0.75Chen, viral+, p=0.70Chen, viral+, p=0.71Cravedi, death, p=0.17Lecronier, death, p=0.24Trullàs, death, p=0.12Gupta, death, p=0.41Lyngbakken, death, p=1.00McGrail, death, p=0.69Bernaola, death, p<0.0001Kelly, death, p=0.03Rivera, death, p=0.90Cavalcanti, death, p=0.77D'Arminio..., death, p=0.12Davido, int./hosp., p=0.04Yu, progression, p=0.05Berenguer, death, p<0.0001Kamran, progression, p=1.00Kalligeros, death, p=0.57Saleemi, viral- time, p<0.05Roomi, death, p=0.54Abd-Elsalam, death, p=1.00Peters, death, p=0.57Pinato, death, p<0.0001Dubernet, ICU, p=0.008Gonzalez, death, p=0.06Pasquini, death, p=0.34Catteau, death, p<0.0001Di Castelnuovo, death, p<0.0001Fried, death, p<0.001Albani, death, p=0.05Synolaki, death, p=0.27Alamdari, death, p=0.03Heberto, death, p=0.04Lauriola, death, p<0.001Ashinyo, hosp. time, p=0.03Serrano, death, p=0.14Ulrich, death, p=1.00Shoaibi, death, p<0.001Lammers, death/ICU, p=0.02Ayerbe, death, p<0.001Almazrou, ventilation, p=0.16Nachega, death, p=0.17Ader, death, p=1.00Soto-Becerra, death, p<0.0001Aparisi, death, p=0.008Annie, death, p=0.83SOLIDARITY, death, p=0.23Guisado-Vasco, death, p=0.36Solh, death, p=0.17Ñamendys-Silva, death, p=0.18Dubee, death, p=0.21Lano, death, p=0.28Coll, death, p<0.0001Frontera, death, p=0.01Choi, viral- time, p<0.0001Tehrani, death, p=0.63López, progression, p=0.02Salazar, death, p=0.28Rodriguez-Nava, death, p=0.77Maldonado, death, p=0.17Núñez-Gil, death, p=0.005Self, death, p=0.84Rodriguez, death, p=0.23Águila-Gordo, death, p=0.10Sheshah, death, p<0.001Boari, death, p<0.001Budhiraja, death, p<0.0001Falcone, death, p=0.20Qin, death, p=0.61van Halem, death, p=0.05Rodriguez-Gonzalez, death, p=0.26Lambermont, death, p=0.46Abdulrahman, death, p=1.00Capsoni, ventilation, p=0.30Peng, progression, p=0.63Modrák, death, p=0.04Ozturk, death, p=0.14Guglielmetti, death, p=0.22Johnston, hosp., p=0.73Alqassieh, hosp. time, p=0.11Bielza, death, p=0.09Tan, hosp. time, p=0.04Naseem, death, p=0.34Orioli, death, p=1.00Signes-Costa, death, p=0.0005Matangila, death, p=0.21Cangiano, death, p=0.03Taccone, death, p=0.0004Chari, death, p=0.17Güner, ICU, p=0.16Vernaz, death, p=0.71Texeira, death, p=0.10Psevdos, death, p=0.52Sands, death, p=0.01Lotfy, death, p=0.76Sarfaraz, death, p=0.07Yegerov, death, p=1.00Li, viral- time, p=0.06Li, no disch., p=0.08Roig, death, p=0.76Ubaldo, death, p=0.64Ouedraogo, death, p=0.38Hernandez-Cardenas, death, p=0.66Purwati, viral+, p<0.0001Lora-Tamayo, death, p<0.0001Awad, death, p=0.60Lamback, death, p=0.83Gonzalez, death, p=0.27Salvador, death, p=0.007Martin-Vicente, death, p=0.41Stewart, death, p=0.95Stewart, death, p=0.0003Stewart, death, p=0.65Stewart, death, p=0.09Stewart, death, p=0.26Stewart, ventilation, p=0.09Stewart, death, p=0.27Barry, death, p=0.60Alghamdi, death, p=0.88Reis, death, p=1.00Mohandas, death, p=0.007Réa-Neto, death, p=0.20Kokturk, death, p=0.97Aghajani, death, p=0.09Bosaeed, death, p=0.91De Rosa, death, p=0.003Late treatment% Lower Risk% Increased Riskhcqmeta.com 5/12/21Probability results fromineffective treatmentMay 24 p<0.051 in 20Aug 23 p<0.011 in 100Sep 29 p<0.0011 in 1 thousandOct 21 p<0.00011 in 10 thousandNov 18 p<0.000011 in 100 thousandNov 30 p<0.0000011 in 1 millionDec 9 p<0.00000011 in 10 million
    
  
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Huhcases, p=0.09Mitchelldeath, p<0.0001Gendelmancases, p=0.88Konighosp., p=0.88Cassionecases, p=0.59Maciashosp., p=1.00Gianfrancescohosp., p=0.82Chatterjeecases, p<0.001