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Introduction
Results
Randomized Controlled Trials..
Analysis with Exclusions
Heterogeneity
Discussion
Negative Meta Analyses
Conclusion
Revisions
Appendix 1. Methods and Study..
References

Early treatment
All studies
Mortality
Hospitalization
With exclusions
RCTs

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97% of the 32 early treatment studies report a positive effect (13 statistically significant in isolation).
Meta analysis using the most serious outcome reported shows 64% [54‑71%] improvement for the 32 early treatment studies. Results are similar after exclusion based sensitivity analysis and after restriction to peer-reviewed studies. Restricting to the 8 RCTs shows 46% [16‑65%] improvement, and restricting to the 13 mortality results shows 75% [60‑84%] lower mortality.
Late treatment is less successful, with only 67% of the 195 studies reporting a positive effect. Very late stage treatment is not effective and may be harmful, especially when using excessive dosages.
83% of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) for early, PrEP, or PEP treatment report positive effects, the probability of this happening for an ineffective treatment is 0.0038.
There is evidence of bias towards publishing negative results. 77% of prospective studies report positive effects, compared to 71% of retrospective studies. Studies from North America are 2.8 times more likely to report negative results than studies from the rest of the world combined, p = 0.0000000289. The probability that an ineffective treatment generated results as positive as the 289 studies is estimated to be 1 in 107 trillion.
Negative meta analyses of HCQ generally choose a subset of trials, focusing on late treatment, especially trials with very late treatment and excessive dosages.
While many treatments have some level of efficacy, they do not replace vaccines and other measures to avoid infection. Only 5% of HCQ studies show zero events in the treatment arm.
Elimination of COVID-19 is a race against viral evolution. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used. Not doing so increases the risk of COVID-19 becoming endemic; and increases mortality, morbidity, and collateral damage.
All data to reproduce this paper and the sources are in the appendix. See [Ladapo, Prodromos, Risch, Risch (B)] for other meta analyses showing efficacy when HCQ is used early.
Total289 studies4,688 authors412,106 patients
Positive effects209 studies3,302 authors289,876 patients
Early treatment 64% improvement RR 0.36 [0.29-0.46]
Late treatment 20% improvement RR 0.80 [0.76-0.86]
    
  
A
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+Gautret66%0.34 [0.17-0.68]2.4gviral+6/2014/16Improvement, RR [CI]Dose (4d)TreatmentControlHuang (RCT)92%0.08 [0.01-1.32]4.0g (c)no recov.0/106/12Esper64%0.36 [0.15-0.87]2.0ghosp.8/41212/224Ashraf68%0.32 [0.10-1.10]1.6gdeath10/772/5Huang (ES)59%0.41 [0.26-0.64]2.0g (c)viral time32 (n)37 (n)Guérin61%0.39 [0.02-9.06]2.4gdeath0/201/34Chen (RCT)72%0.28 [0.11-0.74]1.6gviral time18 (n)12 (n)Derwand79%0.21 [0.03-1.47]1.6gdeath1/14113/377Mitjà (RCT)16%0.84 [0.35-2.03]2.0ghosp.8/13611/157Skipper (RCT)37%0.63 [0.21-1.91]3.2ghosp./death5/2318/234Hong65%0.35 [0.13-0.72]n/aviral+42 (n)48 (n)Bernabeu-Wittel59%0.41 [0.36-0.95]2.0gdeath189 (n)83 (n)Yu (ES)85%0.15 [0.02-1.05]1.6gdeath1/73238/2,604Ly56%0.44 [0.26-0.75]2.4gdeath18/11629/110Ip55%0.45 [0.11-1.85]n/adeath2/9744/970Heras96%0.04 [0.02-0.09]n/adeath8/7016/30Kirenga26%0.74 [0.47-1.17]n/arecov. time29 (n)27 (n)Sulaiman64%0.36 [0.17-0.80]2.0gdeath7/1,81754/3,724Guisado-Vasco (ES)67%0.33 [0.05-1.55]n/adeath2/65139/542Szente Fonseca64%0.36 [0.20-0.67]2.0ghosp.25/17589/542Cadegiani81%0.19 [0.01-3.88]1.6gdeath0/1592/137Simova94%0.06 [0.00-1.13]2.4ghosp.0/332/5Omrani (RCT)12%0.88 [0.26-2.94]2.4ghosp.7/3044/152Agusti68%0.32 [0.06-1.67]2.0gprogression2/874/55Su85%0.15 [0.04-0.57]1.6gprogression261 (n)355 (n)Amaravadi (RCT)60%0.40 [0.13-1.28]3.2gno recov.3/156/12Roy2%0.98 [0.45-2.20]n/arecov. time14 (n)15 (n)Mokhtari70%0.30 [0.20-0.45]2.0gdeath27/7,295287/21,464Million83%0.17 [0.06-0.48]2.4gdeath5/8,31511/2,114Sobngwi (RCT)52%0.48 [0.09-2.58]1.6gno recov.2/954/92Rodrigues (RCT)-200%3.00 [0.13-71.6]3.2ghosp.1/420/42Sawanpanyalert42%0.58 [0.18-1.91]variesprogressionn/an/aEarly treatment64%0.36 [0.29-0.46]148/20,390996/34,23164% improvementAll 32 hydroxychloroquine COVID-19 early treatment studieshcqmeta.com Sep 23, 2021Tau​2 = 0.20; I​2 = 52.9%; Z = 8.20Effect extraction pre-specified, see appendixFavors HCQFavors control
    
  
B
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+All studiesEarly treatmentmin, Q1, median, Q3, maxLower RiskIncreased Riskhcqmeta.com Sep 23, 2021
    
  
C
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Gautretviral+, p=0.001Huangno recov., p=0.02Esperhosp., p=0.02Ashrafdeath, p=0.15Huangviral- time, p<0.0001Guérindeath, p=1.00Chenviral- time, p=0.01Derwanddeath, p=0.12Mitjàhosp., p=0.64Skipperhosp./death, p=0.58Hongviral+, p=0.001Bernabeu-Witteldeath, p=0.03Yudeath, p=0.02Lydeath, p=0.02Ipdeath, p=0.43Herasdeath, p=0.004Kirengarecov. time, p=0.20Sulaimandeath, p=0.01Guisado-Vascodeath, p=0.19Szente Fonsecahosp., p=0.0008Cadegianideath, p=0.21Simovahosp., p=0.01Omranihosp., p=1.00Agustiprogression, p=0.21Suprogression, p=0.006Amaravadino recov., p=0.13Royrecov. time, p=0.96Mokhtarideath, p<0.0001Milliondeath, p=0.0009Sobngwino recov., p=0.44Rodrigueshosp., p=1.00Sawanpanyalertprogression, p=0.37Early treatment% Lower Risk% Increased Riskhcqmeta.com Sep 23, 2021Probability results fromineffective treatmentJun 211 in 100Jul 151 in 1 thousandAug 201 in 10 thousandSep 81 in 100 thousandOct 301 in 1 millionDec 81 in 10 million
    
  
D
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Xia, viral+, p=0.17Chen, progression, p=0.57Gautret, viral+, p=0.001Zhong, viral+, p<0.0001Chen, pneumonia, p=0.04Huang, no recov., p=0.02Barbosa, death, p=0.58Tang, viral+, p=0.51Esper, hosp., p=0.02Magagnoli, death, p=0.74Izoulet, death, p<0.001Ashraf, death, p=0.15Auld, death, p=1.00Sánchez..., death, p=0.005Mallat, viral- time, p=0.02Huh, cases, p=0.09Mitchell, death, p<0.0001Gendelman, cases, p=0.88Membrillo..., death, p=0.002Geleris, int./death, p=0.76Konig, hosp., p=0.88Alberici, death, p=0.12Rosenberg, death, p=0.31Shabrawishi, viral+, p=0.66Cassione, cases, p=0.59Mahévas, death, p=0.75Yu, death, p=0.002Macias, hosp., p=1.00Kim, hosp. time, p=0.01Singh, death, p=0.72Hraiech, death, p=0.21Ip, death, p=0.93Goldman, death, p=0.46Huang, viral- time, p<0.0001Gianfrancesco, hosp., p=0.82Chatterjee, cases, p<0.001Kuderer, death, p<0.0001Rogado, death, p=0.02Guérin, death, p=1.00Boulware, cases, p=0.35RECOVERY, death, p=0.15Bhattacharya, cases, p=0.001Wang, death, p=0.63Huang, hosp., p<0.001Luo, death, p=0.99Paccoud, death, p=0.88Sbidian, death, p=0.74Faíco-Filho, viral rate, p=0.40Chen, viral- time, p=0.01Fontana, death, p=0.53Bousquet, death, p=0.15Lagier, death, p=0.05Gendebien, cases, p=0.93Ferreira, cases, p<0.0001Sosa-García, death, p=1.00Komissarov, viral load, p=0.45Mikami, death, p<0.0001Martinez-Lopez, death, p=0.20Arshad, death, p=0.009Zhong, cases, p=0.04Derwand, death, p=0.12An, viral+, p=0.92Rivera-Izquierdo, death, p=0.75Chen, viral+, p=0.70Chen, viral+, p=0.71Cravedi, death, p=0.17Lecronier, death, p=0.24Trullàs, death, p=0.12Gupta, death, p=0.41Mitjà, hosp., p=0.64Skipper, hosp./death, p=0.58Hong, viral+, p=0.001Lyngbakken, death, p=1.00McGrail, death, p=0.69Desbois, cases, p=1.00Krishnan, death, p=0.48Bernaola, death, p<0.0001Kelly, death, p=0.03Rivera, death, p=0.90Kadnur, cases, p=0.03Cavalcanti, death, p=0.77Khurana, cases, p=0.02Mitjà, death, p=0.27D'Arminio..., death, p=0.12Bernabeu-Wittel, death, p=0.03Davido, int./hosp., p=0.04Yu, progression, p=0.05Berenguer, death, p=0.0001Kamran, progression, p=1.00Kalligeros, death, p=0.57Singer, cases, p=0.62Salvarani, cases, p=0.75Saleemi, viral- time, p<0.05Roomi, death, p=0.54Abd-Elsalam, death, p=1.00Peters, death, p=0.57Pinato, death, p<0.0001Dubernet, ICU, p=0.008Gonzalez, death, p=0.06Ly, death, p=0.02Pasquini, death, p=0.34Catteau, death, p<0.0001Di Castelnuovo, death, p<0.0001Ip, death, p=0.43Ferri, cases, p=0.01Fried, death, p<0.001Albani, death, p=0.05de la Iglesia, hosp., p=1.00Heras, death, p=0.004Synolaki, death, p=0.27Laplana, cases, p=0.24Rentsch, death, p=0.83Kirenga, recov. time, p=0.20Alamdari, death, p=0.03Heberto, death, p=0.04Sulaiman, death, p=0.01Lauriola, death, p<0.001Ashinyo, hosp. time, p=0.03Grau-Pujol, cases, p=0.47Rajasingham, hosp., p=1.00Gentry, death, p=0.10Serrano, death, p=0.14Ulrich, death, p=1.00Shoaibi, death, p<0.001Lammers, death/ICU, p=0.02Abella, cases, p=1.00Ayerbe, death, p<0.001Polat, cases, p=0.03Yadav, hosp., p=0.01Almazrou, ventilation, p=0.16Nachega, death, p=0.17Ader, death, p=1.00Soto-Becerra, death, p<0.0001Aparisi, death, p=0.008Annie, death, p=0.83SOLIDARITY, death, p=0.23Guisado-Vasco, death, p=0.36Solh, death, p=0.17Ñamendys-Silva, death, p=0.18Dubee, death, p=0.21Lano, death, p=0.28Coll, death, p<0.0001Goenka, IgG+, p=0.03Frontera, death, p=0.01Choi, viral- time, p<0.0001Arleo, death, p=0.67Tehrani, death, p=0.63Szente Fonseca, hosp., p=0.0008López, progression, p=0.02Behera, cases, p=0.29Cadegiani, death, p=0.21Salazar, death, p=0.28Rodriguez-Nava, death, p=0.77Maldonado, death, p=0.17Dhibar, cases, p=0.03Datta, cases, p=0.47Mathai, cases, p<0.0001Núñez-Gil, death, p=0.005Self, death, p=0.84Rodriguez, death, p=0.23Águila-Gordo, death, p=0.10Simova, cases, p=0.01Simova, hosp., p=0.01Sheshah, death, p<0.001Boari, death, p<0.001Budhiraja, death, p<0.0001Falcone, death, p=0.20Omrani, hosp., p=1.00Revollo, cases, p=0.52Qin, death, p=0.61Burdick, death, p=0.12van Halem, death, p=0.05Rodriguez-Gonzalez, death, p=0.26Lambermont, death, p=0.46Abdulrahman, death, p=1.00Capsoni, ventilation, p=0.30Peng, progression, p=0.63Modrák, death, p=0.04Ozturk, death, p=0.14Barnabas, hosp., p=1.00Guglielmetti, death, p=0.22Agusti, progression, p=0.21Johnston, hosp., p=0.73Alqassieh, hosp. time, p=0.11Jung, death, p=1.00Bielza, death, p=0.09Tan, hosp. time, p=0.04Naseem, death, p=0.34Orioli, death, p=1.00De Luna, death, p=0.69Gönenli, progression, p=0.77Signes-Costa, death, p=0.0005Matangila, death, p=0.21Huh, progression, p=0.11Cangiano, death, p=0.03Taccone, death, p=0.0004Su, progression, p=0.006Chari, death, p=0.17Cordtz, hosp., p=0.67Güner, ICU, p=0.16Vernaz, death, p=0.71Texeira, death, p=0.10Psevdos, death, p=0.52Sands, death, p=0.01Lotfy, death, p=0.76Sarfaraz, death, p=0.07Yegerov, death, p=1.00Rangel, death, p=0.77Li, viral- time, p=0.06Li, no disch., p=0.08Trefond, death, p=0.80Di Castelnuovo, death, p<0.0001Roig, death, p=0.76Ubaldo, death, p=0.64Ouedraogo, death, p=0.38Hernandez-Cardenas, death, p=0.66Fitzgerald, cases, p=0.52Purwati, viral+, p<0.0001Thompson, death, p=0.84Lora-Tamayo, death, p<0.0001Awad, death, p=0.60Lamback, death, p=0.83Bae, cases, p=0.17Gonzalez, death, p=0.27Amaravadi, no recov., p=0.13Pham, death, p=0.77Salvador, death, p=0.007Martin-Vicente, death, p=0.41Vivanco-Hidalgo, hosp., p=0.10Roy, recov. time, p=0.96Stewart, death, p=0.95Stewart, death, p=0.0003Stewart, death, p=0.65Stewart, death, p=0.09Stewart, death, p=0.26Stewart, ventilation, p=0.09Stewart, death, p=0.27Barry, death, p=0.60Dev, cases, p=0.003Alghamdi, death, p=0.88Mokhtari, death, p<0.0001Mulhem, death, p=0.10Gadhiya, death, p=0.89Seet, severe case, p=0.14Alegiani, death, p=0.64Alzahrani, death, p=1.00Reis, death, p=1.00Mohandas, death, p=0.007Réa-Neto, death, p=0.20Kokturk, death, p=0.97Aghajani, death, p=0.09Bosaeed, death, p=0.91Çiyiltepe, death, p=0.85De Rosa, death, p=0.003Sammartino, death, p=0.002Rojas-Serrano, symp. case, p=0.12Syed, symp. case, p=0.41Million, death, p=0.0009Smith, death, p<0.0001Ramírez-García, death, p<0.0001Kamstrup, hosp., p=0.25Korkmaz, death, p=0.19Sivapalan, death, p=0.32Byakika-Kibwika, recov. time, p=0.91Lagier, death, p=0.004Badyal, cases, p<0.0001Singh, death, p=0.45Saib, int./death, p=0.23Turrini, death, p=0.15Schwartz, ICU, p=1.00Gerlovin, death, p=0.18Taieb, no disch., p=0.02Jacobs, death, p=0.74Roger, death, p=0.94Barrat-Due, death, p=0.35Alhamlan, death, p=0.57Küçükakkaş, ICU, p=1.00Sobngwi, no recov., p=0.44Barra, death, p=1.00Alghamdi, death, p=0.52Bhatt, cases, p=0.02Shabani, symp. case, p=1.00Patil, death, p=0.10Naggie, symp. case, p=0.18Rodrigues, hosp., p=1.00Sawanpanyalert, progression, p=0.37Panda, hosp., p=0.61Alotaibi, death, p=0.05Çivriz Bozdağ, death, p=0.003All studies% Lower Risk% Increased Riskhcqmeta.com Sep 23, 2021Probability results fromineffective treatmentMay 181 in 100Jun 291 in 10 thousandJul 151 in 100 thousandAug 201 in 1 millionSep 121 in 10 millionSep 301 in 1 billionNov 111 in 1 trillion
Figure 1. A. Random effects meta-analysis of all early treatment studies. This plot shows pooled effects, analysis for individual outcomes is below, and more details on pooled effects can be found in the heterogeneity section. Effect extraction is pre-specified, using the most serious outcome reported. Simplified dosages are shown for comparison, these are the total dose in the first four days. Chloroquine is indicated with (c). For details of effect extraction and full dosage information see the appendix. B. Scatter plot of the effects reported in early treatment studies and in all studies. Early treatment is more effective. C and D. Chronological history of all reported effects, with the probability that the observed frequency of positive effects occurred due to random chance from an ineffective treatment.
Introduction
We analyze all significant studies concerning the use of HCQ (or CQ) for COVID-19. Search methods, inclusion criteria, effect extraction criteria (more serious outcomes have priority), all individual study data, PRISMA answers, and statistical methods are detailed in Appendix 1. We present random-effects meta-analysis results for all studies, for studies within each treatment stage, for mortality results only, after exclusion of studies with critical bias, and for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) only. Typical meta analyses involve subjective selection criteria and bias evaluation, requiring an understanding of the criteria and the accuracy of the evaluations. However, the volume of studies presents an opportunity for an additional simple and transparent analysis aimed at detecting efficacy.
If treatment was not effective, the observed effects would be randomly distributed (or more likely to be negative if treatment is harmful). We can compute the probability that the observed percentage of positive results (or higher) could occur due to chance with an ineffective treatment (the probability of >= k heads in n coin tosses, or the one-sided sign test / binomial test). Analysis of publication bias is important and adjustments may be needed if there is a bias toward publishing positive results. For HCQ, we find evidence of a bias toward publishing negative results.
Figure 2 shows stages of possible treatment for COVID-19. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) refers to regularly taking medication before being infected, in order to prevent or minimize infection. In Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP), medication is taken after exposure but before symptoms appear. Early Treatment refers to treatment immediately or soon after symptoms appear, while Late Treatment refers to more delayed treatment.
    
  
Figure 2. Treatment stages.
Results
Figure 3, Figure 4, and Table 1 show results by treatment stage, and Figure 5 shows a forest plot for a random effects meta-analysis of all studies. Figure 6 and Figure 7 show forest plots restricted to mortality and hospitalization results only.
Early treatment.
97% of early treatment studies report a positive effect, with an estimated reduction of 64% in the effect measured (death, hospitalization, etc.) from the random effects meta-analysis, RR 0.36 [0.29-0.46].
Late treatment.
Late treatment studies are mixed, with 67% showing positive effects, and an estimated reduction of 20% in the random effects meta-analysis. Negative studies mostly fall into the following categories: they show evidence of significant unadjusted confounding, including confounding by indication; usage is extremely late; or they use an excessively high dosage.
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis.
75% of PrEP studies show positive effects, with an estimated reduction of 31% in the random effects meta-analysis. Negative studies are all studies of systemic autoimmune disease patients which either do not adjust for the different baseline risk of these patients at all, or do not adjust for the highly variable risk within these patients.
Post-Exposure Prophylaxis.
88% of PEP studies report positive effects, with an estimated reduction of 33% in the random effects meta-analysis.
Treatment timeNumber of studies reporting positive results Total number of studiesPercentage of studies reporting positive results Probability of an equal or greater percentage of positive results from an ineffective treatmentRandom effects meta-analysis results
Early treatment 31 32 96.9% 1 in 130 million 64% improvement
RR 0.36 [0.29‑0.46]
p < 0.0001
Late treatment 132 196 67.3% 1 in 1 million 20% improvement
RR 0.80 [0.76‑0.86]
p < 0.0001
Pre‑Exposure Prophylaxis 42 56 75.0% 1 in 9 thousand 31% improvement
RR 0.69 [0.57‑0.84]
p = 0.00018
Post‑Exposure Prophylaxis 7 8 87.5% 1 in 28 33% improvement
RR 0.67 [0.53‑0.83]
p = 0.00043
All studies 209 289 72.3% 1 in 107 trillion 25% improvement
RR 0.75 [0.70‑0.79]
p < 0.0001
Table 1. Results by treatment stage. 3 studies report results for a subset with early treatment, these are not included in the overall results.
    
  
00.250.50.7511.251.51.752+All studiesPost-Exposure ProphylaxisPre-Exposure ProphylaxisLate treatmentEarly treatmentmin, Q1, median, Q3, maxLower RiskIncreased Riskhcqmeta.com Sep 23, 2021
Figure 3. Results by treatment stage.
    
  
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Gautretviral+, p=0.001Huangno recov., p=0.02Esperhosp., p=0.02Ashrafdeath, p=0.15Huangviral- time, p<0.0001Guérindeath, p=1.00Chenviral- time, p=0.01Derwanddeath, p=0.12Mitjàhosp., p=0.64Skipperhosp./death, p=0.58Hongviral+, p=0.001Bernabeu-Witteldeath, p=0.03Yudeath, p=0.02Lydeath, p=0.02Ipdeath, p=0.43Herasdeath, p=0.004Kirengarecov. time, p=0.20Sulaimandeath, p=0.01Guisado-Vascodeath, p=0.19Szente Fonsecahosp., p=0.0008Cadegianideath, p=0.21Simovahosp., p=0.01Omranihosp., p=1.00Agustiprogression, p=0.21Suprogression, p=0.006Amaravadino recov., p=0.13Royrecov. time, p=0.96Mokhtarideath, p<0.0001Milliondeath, p=0.0009Sobngwino recov., p=0.44Rodrigueshosp., p=1.00Sawanpanyalertprogression, p=0.37Early treatment% Lower Risk% Increased Riskhcqmeta.com Sep 23, 2021Probability results fromineffective treatmentJun 211 in 100Jul 151 in 1 thousandAug 201 in 10 thousandSep 81 in 100 thousandOct 301 in 1 millionDec 81 in 10 million
    
  
100+ 75 50 25 25 50 75 100 Xia, viral+, p=0.17Chen, progression, p=0.57Zhong, viral+, p<0.0001Chen, pneumonia, p=0.04Barbosa, death, p=0.58Tang, viral+, p=0.51Magagnoli, death, p=0.74Izoulet, death, p<0.001Auld, death, p=1.00Sánchez..., death, p=0.005Mallat, viral- time, p=0.02Membrillo..., death, p=0.002Geleris, int./death, p=0.76Alberici, death, p=0.12Rosenberg, death, p=0.31Shabrawishi, viral+, p=0.66Mahévas, death, p=0.75Yu, death, p=0.002Kim, hosp. time, p=0.01Singh, death, p=0.72Hraiech, death, p=0.21Ip, death, p=0.93Goldman, death, p=0.46Huang, viral- time, p<0.0001Kuderer, death, p<0.0001Rogado, death, p=0.02RECOVERY, death, p=0.15Wang, death, p=0.63Luo, death, p=0.99Paccoud, death, p=0.88Sbidian, death, p=0.74Faíco-Filho, viral rate, p=0.40Fontana, death, p=0.53Bousquet, death, p=0.15Lagier, death, p=0.05Sosa-García, death, p=1.00Komissarov, viral load, p=0.45Mikami, death, p<0.0001Martinez-Lopez, death, p=0.20Arshad, death, p=0.009An, viral+, p=0.92Rivera-Izquierdo, death, p=0.75Chen, viral+, p=0.70Chen, viral+, p=0.71Cravedi, death, p=0.17Lecronier, death, p=0.24Trullàs, death, p=0.12Gupta, death, p=0.41Lyngbakken, death, p=1.00McGrail, death, p=0.69Krishnan, death, p=0.48Bernaola, death, p<0.0001Kelly, death, p=0.03Rivera, death, p=0.90Cavalcanti, death, p=0.77D'Arminio..., death, p=0.12Davido, int./hosp., p=0.04Yu, progression, p=0.05Berenguer, death, p=0.0001Kamran, progression, p=1.00Kalligeros, death, p=0.57Saleemi, viral- time, p<0.05Roomi, death, p=0.54Abd-Elsalam, death, p=1.00Peters, death, p=0.57Pinato, death, p<0.0001Dubernet, ICU, p=0.008Gonzalez, death, p=0.06Pasquini, death, p=0.34Catteau, death, p<0.0001Di Castelnuovo, death, p<0.0001Fried, death, p<0.001Albani, death, p=0.05Synolaki, death, p=0.27Alamdari, death, p=0.03Heberto, death, p=0.04Lauriola, death, p<0.001Ashinyo, hosp. time, p=0.03Serrano, death, p=0.14Ulrich, death, p=1.00Shoaibi, death, p<0.001Lammers, death/ICU, p=0.02Ayerbe, death, p<0.001Almazrou, ventilation, p=0.16Nachega, death, p=0.17Ader, death, p=1.00Soto-Becerra, death, p<0.0001Aparisi, death, p=0.008Annie, death, p=0.83SOLIDARITY, death, p=0.23Guisado-Vasco, death, p=0.36Solh, death, p=0.17Ñamendys-Silva, death, p=0.18Dubee, death, p=0.21Lano, death, p=0.28Coll, death, p<0.0001Frontera, death, p=0.01Choi, viral- time, p<0.0001Tehrani, death, p=0.63López, progression, p=0.02Salazar, death, p=0.28Rodriguez-Nava, death, p=0.77Maldonado, death, p=0.17Núñez-Gil, death, p=0.005Self, death, p=0.84Rodriguez, death, p=0.23Águila-Gordo, death, p=0.10Sheshah, death, p<0.001Boari, death, p<0.001Budhiraja, death, p<0.0001Falcone, death, p=0.20Qin, death, p=0.61Burdick, death, p=0.12van Halem, death, p=0.05Rodriguez-Gonzalez, death, p=0.26Lambermont, death, p=0.46Abdulrahman, death, p=1.00Capsoni, ventilation, p=0.30Peng, progression, p=0.63Modrák, death, p=0.04Ozturk, death, p=0.14Guglielmetti, death, p=0.22Johnston, hosp., p=0.73Alqassieh, hosp. time, p=0.11Bielza, death, p=0.09Tan, hosp. time, p=0.04Naseem, death, p=0.34Orioli, death, p=1.00De Luna, death, p=0.69Signes-Costa, death, p=0.0005Matangila, death, p=0.21Cangiano, death, p=0.03Taccone, death, p=0.0004Chari, death, p=0.17Güner, ICU, p=0.16Vernaz, death, p=0.71Texeira, death, p=0.10Psevdos, death, p=0.52Sands, death, p=0.01Lotfy, death, p=0.76Sarfaraz, death, p=0.07Yegerov, death, p=1.00Li, viral- time, p=0.06Li, no disch., p=0.08Di Castelnuovo, death, p<0.0001Roig, death, p=0.76Ubaldo, death, p=0.64Ouedraogo, death, p=0.38Hernandez-Cardenas, death, p=0.66Purwati, viral+, p<0.0001Thompson, death, p=0.84Lora-Tamayo, death, p<0.0001Awad, death, p=0.60Lamback, death, p=0.83Gonzalez, death, p=0.27Salvador, death, p=0.007Martin-Vicente, death, p=0.41Stewart, death, p=0.95Stewart, death, p=0.0003Stewart, death, p=0.65Stewart, death, p=0.09Stewart, death, p=0.26Stewart, ventilation, p=0.09Stewart, death, p=0.27Barry, death, p=0.60Alghamdi, death, p=0.88Mulhem, death, p=0.10Gadhiya, death, p=0.89Reis, death, p=1.00Mohandas, death, p=0.007Réa-Neto, death, p=0.20Kokturk, death, p=0.97Aghajani, death, p=0.09Bosaeed, death, p=0.91Çiyiltepe, death, p=0.85De Rosa, death, p=0.003Sammartino, death, p=0.002Smith, death, p<0.0001Ramírez-García, death, p<0.0001Sivapalan, death, p=0.32Byakika-Kibwika, recov. time, p=0.91Lagier, death, p=0.004Singh, death, p=0.45Saib, int./death, p=0.23Turrini, death, p=0.15Schwartz, ICU, p=1.00